What is Industry 4.0?
Since the first time “Industry 4.0 dile was mentioned at the technology fair in Germany in 2011, it has been on the agenda of the whole world. Some sources refer to it as the 4th Industrial Revolution. Industry 4.0 is a German project. What has prompted the German government to do so is the Chinese production possibilities that have shaken the European states economically. Developed countries such as Germany, Japan and the United States have turned to Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 is a goal and aims to bring together information technologies and all vital mechanisms. Industry 4.0; Internet of Things, Internet Services and Cyber-Physical Systems. With Industry 4.0, which will bring the new world order, all of the production and living areas will be equipped with intelligent equipment and the systems will work in integration with each other. Industry 4.0 is said to be fully operational within twenty years at the latest. With this system, which will restructure production and consumption, the distribution of rich and poor countries will be reshaped and the gaps in income distribution between countries will occur.
Knowledge of Industry 4.0 is yet weak. Countries have established research units within this structure. The fact that the companies with good conditions in the existing industrial facilities are not willing is also damaging the development.
What Does Industry 4.0 Include?
Industry 4.0 is a general characterization of a system and refers to a tripartite organization. The feet of the organization; Internet of things, Internet of services and cyber-physical systems. In Industry 4.0, based on the principle that systems are in communication with each other, machines can communicate with each other, analyze data and inform people when necessary. The machines will communicate with each other wirelessly via sensors. While all this happens, the system will operate at a lower cost, will produce faster and will have a less wasted operation. Systems will be smaller than the old systems, but will produce more secure production. Robots are at the center of Industry 4.0. Robots are the ones that manage machines, evaluate data, and make other production decisions. The lightless and unmanned production sites, which are called dark factories by some authors, will increase. In addition, three-dimensional printers are another dimension of Industry 4.0. Thanks to these printers, all needs can be produced at home with a simple touch and the commitment to big companies will be eliminated. It should not be forgotten that when Industry 4.0 is fully operational, social problems will also arise. The first thing that comes to mind is unemployment.
Internet of Things (IoT)
It refers to the wireless communication of machines with each other. These machines can be called robots. Each robot has its own communication address, which communicates with each other very quickly and adapts to the changing production strategy. Decision-making and implementation processes are very short. Data analysis is delivered to all units immediately.
Internet of Services: Refers to the new service areas that will emerge. Persons who will provide services over the Internet include those who will receive services, the software that will provide the relationship between them and the services themselves. Email services, cloud system services are included here.
Cyber-Physical Systems: A general name for systems that operate through self-managing sensors as a copy of the virtual world.
From Industrial Revolution to Industry 4.0
One of the most affected areas of technological developments is industry. Every technological innovation has a direct impact on the industrial area and is rapidly spreading in the production area. The first industrial revolution began with the use of water and steam-powered machines in production. With these machines, production was made faster, big factories were established and societies started to industrialize.
The mass production started with the fact that the slaughterhouses established in Cincinnati and the assembly sites in Ford plants were moved by electricity and a faster production was possible and the 2nd Industrial Revolution was realized. 3. The industrial revolution took place with the use of information technologies, automation and software in the industry.
Principles of Industry 4.0
This principle refers to the communication between humans and robots. While people can control the machines remotely, the machines notify the system administrator when they encounter a problem they cannot solve.
It means that the connection between man and machines is not physical.
Machines in intelligent factories, ie robots, can normally make a production decision on their own by relying on data analysis.
Production based on data